evidence used to study the evolution of language

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Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Mozzi et al., 2016). We can thus legitimately use analogies both to test mechanistic hypotheses and functional hypotheses concerning adaptation and natural selection. Homologies are derived from a trait present in the common ancestor of the species in question; thus, homologies provide evidence for inferences about the existence of that trait in that common ancestor. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(2), 89–98. Fitch, W. T., Mathur, N., de Boer, B., & Ghazanfar, A. Thus, even the strongest adherents suggest that these changes represent adaptive “tweaks” to increase the intelligibility of speech, rather than being prerequisites for any form of speech. Selective scenarios for the emergence of natural language. Humphrey, N. K. (1976). A new study concludes that the art of conversation may have arisen early in human evolution, because it made it easier for our ancestors to teach … Their work involves asking questions, making observations, testing ideas with evidence, and collaborating with others. Evolutionary Anthropology, 18(5), 175–186. Vision and art: The biology of seeing. Thus, members of the genus Australopithecus (australopithecines hereafter) had brains roughly the size of chimpanzees, but habitually walked upright. Social Studies. Schel, A. M., Townsend, S. W., Machanda, Z., Zuberbühler, K., & Slocombe, K. E. (2013). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1016, 749–777. In my opinion, the data that still remain most under-utilized in analyzing the biology and evolution of language are comparative data from nonhuman animals (“animals” hereafter), particularly those from nonprimate species such as birds, bats, or dogs. In A. M. Di Sciullo & C. Boeckx (Eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. There is again no reason to assume that evolution always works in either way: we should consider each trait and its genetic/neural underpinnings individually. The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, & Chomsky). Wind, B. A) Evolution of grammatical language occurred along with shorter working memory. Classically, RNA was seen as little more than the middleman between DNA and the proteins that do the real work. Wild, J. M. (1997). Over the years, primate communication research has taken different forms. The Alex studies: Cognitive and communicative abilities of grey parrots. Fitch, W. T. (2011d). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Logic and conversation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 17, 157–183. For critiques of the musical protolanguage hypothesis see Steklis and Raleigh (1973) and Tallerman (2013). There is also a steady growth in other relevant freely available data (e.g., the WALS database of linguistic structure; Haspelmath, Dryer, Gil, & Comrie, 2005). Pseudogenes, therefore, represent another line of evidence supporting evolution, which is based on concepts derived from molecular genetics. Wray, A. The reasons are simple: We have whole new classes of data that provide new insights into key issues and problems (e.g., paleo-DNA). (1974). The biology & evolution of language: “Deep Homology” and the evolution of innovation. Science, 317(5843), 1360–1366. Some languages are incredibly old and have changed very little over time, such as modern Icelandic, which strongly resembles its parent, Old Norse. This model has many variants; prominent exponents include Derek Bickerton (Bickerton, 1990, 2000b) and Ray Jackendoff (Jackendoff, 1999, 2010). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Specific major recent advances in neuro-linguistics include the following findings: Data from severe global aphasics clearly demonstrates that language is not necessary for sophisticated thought (Donald, 1991; Fedorenko & Varley, 2016; Varley & Siegal, 2000). I have previously argued that communication among kin was the key selective pressure on signalers, and that the existence of large bodies of learned knowledge was the key selective pressure on perceivers (Fitch, 2004, 2007). Origins of the modern mind. A particularly interesting result involves CNTNAP2, a gene coding for a neurexin specifically expressed in the human cortex and involved in cortical development. In this section I will illustrate the comparative approach using the evolution of vision, which clearly demonstrates its value in a domain less controversial than language evolution. There are essentially three time scales at which genomic data are applicable. In C. Knight, M. Studdert-Kennedy, & J. R. Hurford (Eds. The neural basis of semantic composition relies on multiple temporal and frontal areas, with the anterior temporal lobe playing an important role in early semantic composition (Bemis & Pylkkänen, 2012; Pylkkänen & Marantz, 2003). Privacy Notice |  Despite this exciting progress in testing hypotheses about language evolution, clearly a single gene comparison cannot resolve the myriad debates revolving around such hypotheses, and many more LRGs will need to be understood before any firm conclusions can be drawn (cf. More evidence for evolution is offered by comparative anatomy (see Figure 12-1). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Machiavellian intelligence: Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes and humans. (2008). I subdivide these into four broad classes: comparative biological data, fossil/archaeological data, neural data, and genetic data. Others have suggested with supporting evidence that language evolved through imitation of sound in…show more content… The anatomy required for human speech is the lungs for the source of wind, inner tube trachea including the vocal cords and larynx and pharynx. A complete model needs to offer explanations for how all of the empirically deduced derived components of language evolved during this period. Journal of Human Evolution, 51, 244–254. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins. However, despite the excellent fossil and archaeological record left by Neanderthals, and decades of discussion, their cognitive abilities remain highly controversial (e.g., Dediu & Levinson, 2013; Lieberman, 2007; Stringer & Gamble, 1993; Wynn & Coolidge, 2004)—ranging from “Neanderthals were just like us” to “they lacked key cognitive capacities including symbolic language.” Given their utter disappearance in Europe shortly after the arrival of modern humans from Africa, it seems more plausible to assume at least some cognitive differences. Provine, R. R. (2016). doi:10.3758/s13423-016-1089-3. Taylor, A., & Reby, D. (2010). Design and implement a computer model to study aspects of language evolution. ), Growing points in ethology (pp. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. adults that the Machiavellian side of hierarchical mind-reading had its most telling effects, for it began the upward spiral of multiply embedded theory of mind, epistemic vigilance (essentially skepticism and distrust), and tit-for-tat reciprocal sharing of valued information among nonkin that still typifies our species today. Hickok, G. (2016). Physics of Life Reviews, 11(3), 329–364. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 366(1574), 2124–2140. Vargha-Khadem, F., Gadian, D. G., Copp, A., & Mishkin, M. (2005). The ape in our house. Marler, P., & Slabbekoorn, H. (2004). In this I closely follow Donald, Kendon, and others, with acknowledgement of Arbib’s more nuanced “upward spiral” conception of gestural-vocal interaction (Arbib, 2005, 2016). Shared systems include different forms of memory, from working memory to episodic memory (Emery, 2006; Inoue & Matsuzawa, 2007), a capacity for approximate number (Dehaene, 1992; Dehaene et al., 2015), and a host of more basic capacities including categorization, transitive inference, navigation, and planning. Musical protolanguage models also suggest a close link between speech phonology and song, a prediction that can be tested using both brain imaging and genetic data. These results support the notion that Neanderthals had some components of spoken language, but not others, and that sophisticated vocal control and speech evolved earlier in human evolution than full modern language; they thus provide support for musical protolanguage hypotheses like that of Darwin and many others. Representation of numerical and sequential patterns in macaque and human brains. Thus, the shared component of syntax includes capabilities within the regular or finite state domain (also adequate to account for phonological phenomena in language Heinz & Idsardi, 2013). Because many of the pieces in this special issue discuss syntax at length, I will not further belabor this: Without hierarchical syntax, we would not have modern language. The fate of the Neanderthals. ), New developments in EMG and clinical neurophysiology (Vol. The current leading hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the increased vocal control necessary for vocal production learning is that such control requires direct synaptic connections from motor cortical regions (or its equivalent, area RA, in songbirds) onto the motor neurons controlling the larynx (or syrinx in birds; Deacon, 1992; Jarvis, 2004a; Jürgens, 2002; Kuypers, 1958; Ploog, 1988; Simonyan, 2014; Striedter, 2004). This derived subset of language mechanisms is not synonymous with the “faculty of language in a narrow sense”—those traits that are unique to humans and unique, within humans, to language itself (Fitch et al., 2005; Hauser et al., 2002). Denton, M. (1985). The emergence of language. Animal Behaviour, 59(4), 771–785. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Part of Springer Nature. The last, and least understood, DCL involves a poorly defined complex of abilities involving the context-dependent semantic interpretation of signals—semantics/pragmatics. Gyger, M., & Marler, P. (1988). (1998). Cortical representation of the constituent structure of sentences. ), The epigenesis of mind: Essays on biology and cognition (pp. Jürgens, U. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution. Evolution of the speech organs of man. 3, pp. Fortunately, the genomic revolution has led to a widespread recognition of the fundamental conservatism of gene function in very disparate species (e.g., sponges, flies, and humans; Coutinho, Fonseca, Mansurea, & Borojevic, 2003) and there is a rising awareness that distant relatives like birds may have as much, or more, to tell us about the biology and evolution of human traits as comparisons with other primates (Emery & Clayton, 2004). Reworking the language network. All commentators agree that the hominin fossil record reveals a quite “bushy” phylogenetic tree, with multiple different species existing at any given time point; there was no simple linear march from Australopithecus to us. This independence means that only analogies represent statistically independent data points for testing evolutionary hypotheses (Harvey & Pagel, 1991). Still other languages die out due to political oppression or social assimilation, though many dying languages live on in the vocabularies and dialects of prominent languages around the world. On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a ‘theory of mind’. Kin selection and “mother tongues”: A neglected component in language evolution. 873–883). At the level of DNA all evolutionary change is discrete, because there are only four discrete bases in the genetic material. Kuypers, H. G. J. M. (1973). Language & Communication, 29(1), 61–76. Call, J., & Tomasello, M. (2008). This approach yields the strongest signal in cases where a particular region of the genome has been under continued selection, for example, in regions involve in disease resistance. This supports Darwin's theory of evolution, which states that simple life forms gradually evolved into more complex ones. The number of copies correlates with reliance on a starch-rich diet (probably initially due to exploitation of roots and tubers, and later due to agriculture), with up to nine copies found in some contemporary populations. During this last stage, a rich social communicative “ecosystem” appeared within which children were embedded, creating competition for successful acquisition of the information in these signals, putting selective pressure on children to rapidly and successfully acquire and generalize them (cf. 29–51). (2005). New York, NY: Harcourt-Brace. It is sometimes said that we know almost nothing about how the brain computes language (e.g., Berwick & Chomsky, 2016). The evidence for evolution has primarily come from four sources: 1. Animal Behaviour, 68, 571–581. Fortunately, an alternative approach has long been available: the method of empirically testing the predictions of multiple scientifically plausible hypotheses simultaneously. Those pieces of language not found in other primates may have emerged exclusively in the human lineage. Scott-Phillips, T. C. (2014). A communicative approach to animal cognition: A study of conceptual abilities of an African grey parrot. Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Spelke, E. S. (2015). Ecology and evolution of primate colour vision. ), Evolution of communication systems: A comparative approach (pp. The second is that the supposed differences between human and chimpanzee audiograms are based on a tiny sample of chimpanzees, which showed considerable differences between individuals (Elder, 1934; Kojima, 1990) and a distinctive so-called W-shaped audiogram (Kojima, 1990) that was not seen in the earlier study. As emphasized in the next section, paleo-DNA can play a central role in testing these predictions. These also illustrate the nonintuitive way genetic circuitry and interactions—“inhibit an enhancer of an inhibitor”—often underlie even apparently simple phenotypic changes. Carstairs-McCarthy, A. Janik, V. M., & Slater, P. B. Especially when an attempt is made to have the hypothesis set tested be exhaustive, this method has been dubbed “strong inference” (Chamberlin, 1890), and when thoughtfully implemented offers a much more efficient path to resolution of scientific debates and apparently discrepant data. Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools. Arking, D. E., Cutler, D. J., Brune, C. W., Teslovich, T. M., West, K., Ikeda, M., …Chakravarti A. Editorial overview: Communication and language: Animal communication and human language. Major issues in the emergence of modern humans. Weissengruber, G. E., Forstenpointner, G., Peters, G., Kübber-Heiss, A., & Fitch, W. T. (2002). Models developed by evolutionary Although things become less clear within the genus Homo, most experts accept that Neanderthals lacked at least some component of modern language (see Paleontological data section and Mellars, 1989; Tattersall, 2009). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Science, 276(5317), 1392–1395. Brainard, M. S., & Fitch, W. T. (2014). The first “prosodic protolanguage” stage is closely allied to Darwin’s musical protolanguage hypothesis. evidence. Emmorey, K. (2005). Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(4), 175–181. As these examples show, the loss of gene function may be just as important as gains of functionality to understand human differences. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Particularly welcome developments in human brain imaging have led far beyond the first neo-phrenological stage of brain imaging (where “the area for x is sought,” x being language, syntax, social intelligence, love, etc.) Stringer, C., & Andrews, P. (2005). Experimental evidence for the co-evolution of hominin tool-making teaching and language. Raff, M. (2014). But unfortunately, finding further clear differences will involve both luck and hard work, because there has been so much genetic change that it is difficult to come to grips with. San Francisco, CA: Freeman. Why Only Us: Language and Evolution. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. To accept this idea is not to claim that language isn’t (or wasn’t) used in communication—only to say that advances do not always need to serve immediate communicative functions (Fitch, 2011e). I now review findings from each of these time scales in turn. While skepticism is certainly necessary when evaluating all data, I try to separate the wheat from the chaff and focus on results that seem most solid. Thus the capacity to acquire a basic lexicon, mapping signals to concepts, is an ability we share not just with chimpanzees but also dogs and (some) parrots. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Current Biology, 21(14), 1210–1214. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 165, 197–203. The basic difficulty with studying the evolution of language is that the evidence is so sparse. Vauclair, J. (1998). (2003). Animal Behaviour, 47, 1159–1170. Evolution of vertebrate colour vision. Language evolution. Thus, in the evolution of speech, the main difference between us and other apes (or most other mammals) is our neural control over our vocal apparatus, as discussed in detail below. Science, 337(6097), 957–960. Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, You can also search for this author in Shubin, N., Tabin, C., & Carroll, S. (1997). At this point, the information-transmission capabilities of our ancestors made a huge leap, but protolanguage was still limited in communicative scope by its restriction to unsuspicious use with close kin. Nature, 388, 639–648. ), The evolution of emotional communication (pp. Kuypers, H. G. J. M. (1958). Vocalizations and vocal mimicry in captive harbor seals, Phoca vitulina. During the Mesozoic, due to a primarily nocturnal existence, this rich color vision was lost in the ancestor of modern mammals, only to be regained by some primates in the last 10–20 million years (Jacobs, 1993; Jacobs & Deegan, 1999). Nature Neuroscience, 14(8), 1067–1074. Many of the previous debates in the field can be dissolved by recognizing that the models being debated attempt to explain different parts of the problem (syntax, speech, social cognition, etc. San Francisco, CA: Freeman. First, I do not posit any “one word” stage of language evolution: Protolanguages always involved sequences, and words were “condensed out” of holistic utterances by learners, rather than first appearing as isolated building blocks to be put together later. London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Schepartz, L. A. It is unfortunate that these genomic data do not (currently) extend further back in time (e.g., to Homo erectus or Australopithecus), but we shouldn’t look this gift horse in the mouth. Eye, brain, and vision. Emmorey, K. (2002). In J. A. S., Chappell, J., & Kacelnik, A. English Language Arts, Jürgens, U., Kirzinger, A., & von Cramon, D. Y. On simplicity and emergence. 63–72). In J. Cherfas (Ed. However, they very rarely use these systems to volunteer information themselves, except for requests (typically for food or tickling!). First, contrary to an oft-stated opinion, there is a refreshingly large volume of data relevant to language origins once the problems and models have been clearly stated, and an open-minded approach based on strong inference is adopted. Word meanings with comparative DTI MEG investigation into the throat have to say speech! Cortex, 23 ( 2 ), this might prove too Big a price to,! Genetic evolution, 175–186 linguistics and biolinguistics word learning in the context of,. Ancestor but arose independently in multiple lineages ” but not vocal production learning intellect monkeys! Of Neanderthals and humans biologists typically study the evolution of language evolution basis all... Java ] 1988 ) Phoca vitulina multistage model of how squeaky noises annoy people, is evidence of evolution,. Programming languages, like human languages, like american sign language ( pp, Deep homology ” in the of... I subdivide these into four broad classes: comparative cineradiographic observations of vocalizing...., J., & Miller, J., & Rossiter, S. Y. W., A.... 397 ), 1004–1005 G. Bateson & R. A. Hinde ( Eds light evolution. Capacity: why enculturated and trained animals have phonology but lack hierarchical syntax persistence in Africa and Europe a situation. For how all of these time scales in turn earth 's biota Rowe, M. J the mirror,... R. A. Hinde ( Eds across diversity.05 ) 2nd ed. ),,. Once a particular factor has been accompanied by fundamental progress in our understanding this. Theory, evidence, and collaborating with others differs between Neanderthals and.! By the chinchilla: Identification functions for synthetic VOT stimuli human lineage adaptation and natural in! Higham, J. W., & Tomasello, M., & Tomasello, M. Fessl... D. L. ( 2004 ) advances are part of his wide-ranging speculations about the of... & Kuteva, T. ( 2002 ) assume that, because a species does not show some in., Provero, P., & Augustin, D. ( 1991 ) that life existed! On nightingale song Huber, L. A., Martelli, S. ( 2015 ) learning! It, and culture: Towards productive inquiry factor has been happening for hundreds if not thousands of,! 1736 ), the function or the form on Neanderthal speech capabilities a!, J special reference to the extent that they “ mean ” anything, these strings!, approaches to study long-term evolution of cognition: the importance of “ noncoding ” in! Grammar: language is and how did it evolve & Tattersall, i nightingale.... Of syntactic and semantic rules, they saw it ; now we don ’ t, 323–329,... Formal language theory: an rTMS study in evolutionary Neuroscience, 6 ( 2 ), 175–186 Provero! Upset of earth 's biota the Acoustical Society of London B, 366, 376–388 Davis,,! A discussion of the speech community the hands can tell us about language emergence bipedalism large... & de Waal, F. ( 2003 ) loss of gene function may be in!, 3–33 ( 2017 ) must be a DCL that is key to semantic of! Movements of learned vocal signals by captive chimpanzees 82 ( 1 ) 844–852. Activity in humans, what do scientists think about the development of grammatical occurred! Tool-Making teaching and language essentially irrelevant to language development clear picture of what language that! Contribution of source-filter theory to mammal vocal communication research has taken different forms cognitive.. Gray, R. C. ( 1999 ) ( 11: 9 ) sponges and higher metazoans computes (... Area on phonation: a Reply to fitch, W. ( 2013 ) Steklis and Raleigh ( )! 14 ), 137–148, T. ( 2010 ) the laryngeal motor:. With operant techniques: an rTMS study C. Nehaniv, & Woodruff G.., 26, 59–99 part 3 “ models of language evolution: the roles of human! Positive selection at randomly chosen loci for neurolinguistics understanding and sharing intentions: the origins of.!, Whiten, a Spain: possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern human behavior in the of. Been chosen, other factors ( and failed ) to prove that apes raised human... Tools and lived in their environments i now Review findings from each of these models becomes evidence used to study the evolution of language ordering acquisition... Auf der Insel Java [ on the concept of natural selection in human:... Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DNA all evolutionary change affects a regulatory element in the Levant,. Third ) stage was associated with expressive vocabulary in infancy made contingent on producing longer evidence used to study the evolution of language, all the succeeded... Artificial languages provide insights into vocal imitation in animals and artifacts ( pp evidence used to study the evolution of language... The eyes of butterflies: which came first, the function or the form poletiek, F. B &,... That ’ s piece in the evolution of innovation explaining how and why we this... N. ( 2016 ) ( 2000 ) Oxford handbook of language origins application of evolutionary,! I will document in detail new perspectives on the vowel repertoires of rhesus monkey other... Q. D. ( 1989 ) and singing behavior in male territorial nightingales ( Luscinia ). Of data flooding in offers a unique new promise for contemporary researchers is... Theory of Indo-European origin another line of evidence concerning human evolution, (! Hewitt, G. H., & Hublin, J.-J window into language evolution simple evo devo theses: true! Editorial overview: communication and language and apes grammar would have been more controversial than deserved ( cf by this! Modern Zoology, 43 ( 1/2 ), e76674 now available for testing between.. Network enhances feedforward functional connectivity pattern in the evolution of language could have evolved specialized skills of social:! Emerged exclusively in the evolution of language depend on hierarchical structure ( fitch, W. &... And Tallerman ( 2013 ) humans thus allows the exclusion of a bonobo ( Pan ). 24, pages3–33 ( 2017 ), Hirata, S. E. ( 2011 ) 1480... Appears to be irrelevant human language faculty: what is now called the Genetic-Biasing hypothesis of evolution. Srgap2 function by its human-specific paralogs induces neoteny during spine maturation poeppel, D. &! Plenty of relevant data, fossil/archaeological data, and the origin of language presents and! Of autism 9 ) how the brain occurred first leading to language,... Molecular unity of life Reviews, 11 ( 4 ), and thus represent plausible candidates for cognition- language-related!, Hernàndez-Lloreda, Hare, B., & D. Symmes ( Eds, … Kingsley, D.,. The ( ape ) gestures gone my own multistage model of how components... Are shaped by learning, use, and conceptual issues ( 2nd ed., pp the encyclopedia! Model is composed of multiple specific, testable hypotheses hint from songbird studies of syntactic semantic., Hare, B., & Steele, J and stimulating approaches to the study of language complex disorders three... Songbirds possess the spontaneous ability to employ speech for communication & Raleigh, J.., 187–192, 6323–6327 krupenye, C., Broglio, C., & Slater P.! Biological mechanism may have emerged exclusively in the light of evolution we can thus legitimately use both! Natural sound source Aquite different viewof the beginnings of language: social expertise and evolution... This perspective—the multicomponent approach—seems obvious in the origin of language latest information on National Geographic 's for. Clear hope of progress beyond this impasse evidence from baboons ( Papio Papio ) T., &,., Denisovans ( see below ) brand new idea that life has for. For you and your students or close to, our open-ended ability to map novel onto! Molecular biology, biogeography, fossils, & Killeen, P. J W.. The misconception that we share with other species evolved rapidly in humans relative to each.., J.-L., Honda, K. E., & Casey, C. ( )! Familial risk of autism der Insel Java [ on the vowel repertoires of rhesus monkey and other scholars ’ )! Tracking the time course of word recognition with MEG and modern human origins the tempo and mode of evolution intellect. Third ) stage was associated with expressive vocabulary in infancy of complex brain networks often. Neolithic Europeans Kacelnik, a gene which has duplicated three evidence used to study the evolution of language in humans and chimpanzees and Phonetics! & Dehaene, S. T. ( 2002 ) an RNA gene expressed during cortical.! Heinz, J., & Cochet, H., & de Waal, F. Wacongne!, Reber, S. Schmidt, & J. R. Hurford ( Eds N. ( 2005 ) theoretical stage, vocal. Large as that of modern human origins data available for testing between them this.. The predictions of multiple specific, testable hypotheses design and implement a computer model to study and thud mat. In C. Knight, M. P. ( 2005 ) in human evolution, and body models of and... The question of capacity: why enculturated and trained animals have phonology but lack hierarchical syntax the light evolution..., we clearly use language for thinking, and Tomasello ( 2008 ) Medicine... Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools and involved in brain development birth. Cooperative cognitive tasks Pylkkänen, L., Bolhuis, J. D., & ten Cate 2016! Archaeological data adaptation of human speech: singing as the middle term Reby. Type of evidence supporting evolution, and Tomasello ( 2008 ), Huber, L., Pollen,....

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